Sunday, 17 June 2018

Community Radio

Community radio usually is a short-range, not-for-profit radio station or channel that caters for the information needs of people living in a particular locality, in the languages and formats that are most adapted to the local context. Community radio stations can be mobilized for campaigns, for example by announcing campaign events, hosting talk shows with campaigners, or playing the campaign radio jingle and songs.

Community radio, rural radio, cooperative radio, participatory radio, free radio, alternative, popular, educational radio. If the radio stations, networks and production groups that make up the World Association of Community Radio Broadcasters refer to themselves by a variety of names, then their practices and profiles are even or varied. Some are musical, some militant and some mix music and militancy. They are located in isolated rural villages and in the heart of the largest cities in the world. Their signals may reach only a kilometer, cover a whole country or be carried via shortwave to other parts of the world. Some stations are owned by not-for-profit groups or by cooperatives whose members are the listeners themselves. 

Call it by any name community radio, rural radio, cooperative radio, or development radio, its proponents feel that radio holds the key that will unite India's linguistic and ethnic diversity and improve the economic disparity and the huge rural-urban divide. 

India has 245 commercial radio stations spread across 50-odd cities out of a total of 1,600 cities and towns in the country. Some might argue that radio is an ageing technology and shouldn't be revived, but it is dying even faster where it is needed the most: in rural hinterlands and communities.

More than 70% of Indian population lives in villages and a vast majority of them have little to no connectivity to Internet, electricity or telephone lines making radio the only feasible medium for mass communication. 

However, 13 years after India first opened itself to the idea of having community-run radio stations, only 179 such stations are currently functional in the country, far short of the 4,000 stations the government in 2007 promised would be set up "in a few years".

Friday, 15 June 2018

Importance of Research in Mass Media

Research comprises “creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.” 
Research is actually an act of studying something carefully and extensively in order to attain deep knowledge in the same. For being successful, research should be systematic, arranged, summarized and recorded properly. Research is not only a process that is limited to the field of science. It can, as well, cater to people and scholars from artistic, historic or any other field where an individual is willing to do extensive study to get relevant information. 
Research provides you with all necessary information in field of your work, study or operation before you begin working on it. For example, most companies do research before beginning a project in order to get a basic idea about the things they will need to do for the project.
If you use social media such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, go online or watch television you are involved in mass media. And if you've ever said yes to an internet prompt that asks if it is okay to collect your browsing history so they can better adapt the ads to suit your needs, then you are actively participating in mass media research. Simply, mass media research is the study of information related to any form of mass communication. Mass media includes television, internet, and social media. Newspapers and magazines are also considered mass media if they have a wide enough reach.

 Businesses study mass media to see which form of mass media produces the greater result for its advertisements. In contrast, from a public health standpoint, studies have been performed to see what kind of effect watching TV violence has on children. 
Because Mass Media is everywhere, likewise research is also everywhere. Mass Media Research impacts many people’s lives.

Media Research

Media research is the study of the social, psychological and physical aspects and effects of the different mass media. For example, how much time do people spend with a particular medium? Whether it has the effect of bringing about changes in the perspectives of people? Does the use of medium have any harmful effects? Whether these effects are because of technology or the programme contents? What the media users want and expect to hear or read or see and experience?

In this connection it is also researched whether a medium can provide information and entertainment to more and different types of people. In what way, new technology can be used to improve or enhance the sight or sound of the medium? How is it possible to change the content or programming to make it more valuable effective and entertaining?

While conducting Media research, we need to understand:
The nature of medium being used
The working of the medium
Technologies involved in it
Difference and similarities between it and other media vehicles
Functions and services provided by it
Cost associated and access to new medium
Effectiveness and how it can be improved

As decision process depends on data, thus media research has grown to be utilized for long range planning. Research is in growth phase due to competitions between different media.

Communication, by definition, is a two-way process. It is a co-operative and a joint effort. It is a mutual experience. It is an exchange between two parties- a sender and receiver. For the communication experience to become complete, what we need is a response to the message of the communicator. That response, when it reaches back the sender, is called feedback.

In interpersonal Communication, the sender and receiver interact naturally, directly and immediately. They constantly interchange roles- as sender and receiver. But in mass communication, the situation is different. The response of the audience becomes meaningful only if it reaches the sender. The different means of feedback include writing a letter, making a phone-call or sending an e-mail or SMS, canceling a subscription, etc. Turning of the TV set is a reaction. But it does not reach the sender. In view of the distance, time and space between the communicator and the audience, mass communication feedback is indirect, delayed, often cumulative and rarely representative. Thus media organizations try to collect feedback on their own. But the process of collecting feedback is immensely time consuming, and involves enormous expenses.

The audiences of the mass media are usually very large. Any feedback to be worthwhile has to come from a representative sample of the total population. It must be statistically represent the feelings and actions of the total audience.

Wednesday, 13 June 2018


The art of emotions…

As per the very famous theory of Professor Robert Plutchik, there are basic 8 emotions that a human feels in his whole life. The list of these 8 emotions is as follows:

1.     Fear
2.     Anger
3.     Sadness
4.     Joy
5.     Disgust
6.     Surprise
7.     Trust
8.     Anticipation or Expectation

Rest all feelings are either higher or lower forms of these basic emotions.  We all very well understand the meaning of these emotions as well. However, the reason why we are reading them here is because they are the major constituent of theatre.

Theatre can be simply described as a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performances of actor/actresses to represent a real or imagined event before a live audience usually on a stage. Performers may use a combination of gestures, music, speeches, poetry, dance and light to enhance their performances. Special costumes, props and sometimes masks are also used by artists to make the theatre livelier.

Theatre is one of the oldest forms of art and has it origin from Greece during 700 BC. The development has been majorly recorded in the city state Athens where it was performed as a part of their festivals called Dionysia which honored Dionysus- the God of grape harvest, wine making and fertility.
Later on the art was also being used at many other occasions as well with several different themes of religious rituals, political laws, athletes, weddings and funerals.

Since then theatre had emerged a lot. Today, we have a wide collection of literature which are being translated and represented in the form of theatre. Also, a lot of new talents are creating fresh story boards for theatre to represent modern scenarios and issues. Beauty of the theatre is it helps people to memorise the events. It gives people a live experience of those events where they were not present physically at the time of event happening.

" Hit the link to watch IAAN Students performing theatre"

You can become a theatre artist if you know the right use of emotions and expressions. If you can just show them the way words tell you. Learning theatre is itself an art. You won’t be asked directly to go on the stage and perform. It starts from the very basic things. The trainer would ask you to do some exercise repeatedly to improve the movement of your muscles and to improve the quality of your voice as the right movement of muscle gives you the right expression and the voice demands modulations as per the need of emotion. However this may be time taking but if you want to become a theatre artist, be very patient, not everything comes fast. Best things take time to happen.

Happy Learning!!!

Monday, 11 June 2018


The basic you need to know about this term…

In the business of film production, the designation of "director" is a somewhat enigmatic title. Comparatively speaking, most of the other principal creative personnel involved in film-making hold titles that give a fairly clear indication of their professional responsibilities. Generally, one individual is responsible for overseeing the labour that is relevant to a single facet of production, whether it be cinematography, writing, editing, music, sound, production design, or costumes. With the notable exception of the producer, however, the range of the director's tasks is quite broad, and involves coordinating innumerable creative activities throughout the course of developing, shooting, completing, and marketing a film.

It shall be assumed here that the director is the individual who actively oversees the realization of a film from shooting script to finished product, harmoniously coordinating the creative activities of the key personnel involved in the production processes. He or she will liaise with each of these artists, deliberate over various expressive and/or technical options to be implemented, and arrive at a decision that is commensurate with the requirements of the developing work. Correspondingly, the director will also be answerable to the executive body that finances and/or distributes the work and therefore must ensure that production runs smoothly and within an allotted budget. The director's job, then, is twofold: to maintain a consistency of style and quality throughout production and ensure that the production itself proceeds efficiently and economically.

Serving as the funnel through which all of the decisions affecting a film's form and style are exercised, a director's primary task is to cultivate and coordinate the creative contributions of a production company's principal artists. In the interests of specificity and demystification, it is worth enumerating the various duties assigned to the director during all three stages of filmmaking: preproduction, production, and postproduction.

During the preproduction stage, the director's responsibilities can be divided into four principle tasks: (1) collaborating with the writer(s) on the development of the script; (2) assisting the casting director in hiring appropriate actors, and conducting rehearsals; (3) cooperating with the producer(s) in developing a practical shooting schedule; and (4) planning the overall visual "look" of the film with the production designers and the director of photography (DOP).

As in preproduction, there are four principal post-production areas in which a director's input is necessary: (1) editing, (2) visual effects, (3) music, and (4) sound. In most cases, an editor and director will develop the film's pace and rhythm, reinforce continuity between shots, trim moments of unwanted excess, and ensure that the montage generally serves to reinforce the work's intent. The visual effects category encompasses the manipulation of the raw footage by color timers, processing technicians, special effects designers, and an array of digital artists, compositors, and animators. Broadly speaking, a director will convey instructions to supervisors in each of these groups, indicating the specific "look" the director wishes to convey.

Happy Learning!!!

Saturday, 9 June 2018


What does this word mean?

To put it simply: producers are the project managers of the film and television industries. Working on film or television productions throughout the entire project lifecycle, these dynamic individuals use their team leading and organisational skills to make sure projects are completed on time and in budget.

Producers may occasionally provide creative input into the content and style of television shows or feature films, but, predominantly, they are responsible for the commercial and practical aspects of a film or television production.

Producers are responsible for securing funding from a range of sponsors, managing budgets, assigning resources, creating production plans, and hiring screenwriters, directors, casting directors, cinematographers and other vital members of staff.

A producer is also in charge of supervising team members, liaising with the director on a regular basis, delegating responsibilities to assistant producers, making sure targets are reached, and handling any problems in a quick, efficient and cost-effective manner.

The work of producer is not easy but if you are fascinated by the films and television industry and want to step into it. Producer can really be an amazing and creative job.

Although a degree is not strictly necessary for entry into this line of work, completing an undergraduate or postgraduate degree in a relevant subject, such as media studies, creative media production, film studies, photography or broadcast journalism may boost your chances of securing an entry-level position.

Gaining relevant work experience is essential. Many people get their break as a producer after working in another role in the industry, such as runner, broadcast assistant or production assistant as you get to learn the basics there and had observed producers working closely.
It’s also a good idea to get involved with your student You tube channel, radio station or production group at college and fill in some stuff to your production skills.

Friday, 8 June 2018

Media and Society

 The word media is plural form of ‘medium’. Hence when we talk about media, we are talking about a lot of mediums, mediums for communication and connectivity which are two basic and most important traits of a society. A society is meaningless and lifeless if there is no communication and connectivity between its people. However, what media do is connecting societies on larger scales like one city to another, one nation to another and may be one planet to another planet in future, who knows if they discover life on other planets?

In today’s era, society is so much dependent on media. We look up to media for every small or big information, even if we feel tremors, what we do to confirm is look up to some news web portals if they have flashed such news, if it was really a earthquake.

Media has become an inseparable requirement of our lives. We cannot keep ourselves disconnected. Either through a text message on What’s app, any post on a friend’s Face book timeline or a notification from a news website is all to engage us and link us to a large community.

Media keeps us informed irrespective of Geo-Location. No one can deny the blessings of media in today’s world. The mass media helps people to remain informed and updated about the various news, events, social activities, lifestyle, entertainment, and advertisements irrespective of the geographical barriers. For example, while sitting in India, one can get all latest news and events of UK, or USA.

Mass media have made profound impact on societies and their culture. It ceases the boundaries of different societies among the individuals and creates ‘Globalization.’ The globalization is a decent case to delineate the friendship of media, since people can witness what is happening in different nations or how they dress up and what their way of life is. Subsequently, they typically mirror what others do.

Thus, it can be concluded mass media have a powerful influence in shaping a persons’ lives and thus the societies.