Saturday, 30 June 2018

Want to Be an Entertainment Journalist?

Entertainment journalism is any form of journalism that talks about entertainment and glamour. To become a fabulous entertainment journalist you should have a impressive knowledge of glamour world. The field looks so easy when you hear about it but you will actually understand with time that it takes courage, creativity and confidence to become an entertainment journalist. So here are some wonderful tips which would be helpful to you:

Skills & Education

A college degree in journalism, English, or creative writing is recommended for this career and should include courses in non-fiction writing, reporting, new media journalism, editing, and mass communication law. Writers must have a strong command of the English language and the fundamentals of constructing a compelling article. 
Write a Movie or Book Review
One excellent way to get a head start in this field  is to write a movie or book review on a blog such as WordPress or Blogger. If there’s a new e-book or paperback you are interested in, write a review about it and then send post the link on your Facebook or Twitter pages. If there’s a particular movie that’s currently hot in the market, review it!
Startup with the profession
Amateur entertainment writers usually blog or write reviews for the pleasure of it without any monetary compensation. In some cases, a good blog can tempt so many visitors that the companies will start calling you for their advertisements which would bring you a good living without any extra efforts. What you exactly need: keep writing everyday and try to bring some new ideas and new things in your writing.  However, true professional positions in entertainment journalism usually require an internship, experience writing for a magazine or newspaper, and a bachelor's degree in journalism. Some entertainment journalists go into broadcast journalism and work as hosts or correspondents for TV shows about celebrities, music or movies.

Give your viewers/readers a look behind-the-scenes. 
Apply for a day pass which gives you access to the red carpet up until 11 a.m. on the day of the awards show. This allows you a real behind-the-scenes look at how the event is put together.
This is the most important step to gain employment in the entertainment industry. Set up a LinkedIn account and get ready to hook up with potential employers. Make your profile impressive and include your most recent experience. LinkedIn is a resource that not only has job listings, but has a network of people that could potentially land you a job, so join some groups that are related to the entertainment industry.

 By- Sonam Gupta

Friday, 29 June 2018

Top tips for creative writing

Crafting an original work of fictionpoetry, or creative non-fiction takes time, practice, and persistence. While there’s no exact science to creative writing, the following tips will help you get started:

1. Know your audience- An important point to start with: you are writing for your readers, not for yourself. Familiarize yourself with your expected audience. Where do you imagine this piece of writing appearing? The readers of a poetry magazine are different from the readers of a fan fiction site; the readers of mass-market mystery novels are different from the readers of a flash fiction blog.

2. Write about what you know- Beginning writers always get told write what you know’, but it’s good advice. Use settingscharactersbackground, and language that you’re already familiar with and create new stories from the world that you already know. This is like using research you’ve already done. And remember, your background, what you bring to the act of writing, is as valid as what anyone else can bring.

3. Read widely and well Writers love reading. Make yourself familiar with the published landscape of writing in your chosen field, whether it’s modern poetry, literary fiction, thrillersshort stories, or fantasy. Nothing encourages good writing like reading good writing.

4Keep a journalOne key part of the inspiration process is tracking it down. A writing journal offers a great place to store your observations, thought-provoking quotations, and other interesting tidbits you may encounter. The end result is an accumulation of ideas that can help you in generating character, conversation, and other elements of your writing. A journal also offers a space to experiment with writing exercises, and play around with different writing techniques.
5. Make time to write- You can have everything laid out perfectly in front of you for a great novel, but you also need time to actually write it. Setting aside a daily period specifically for writing might not be necessary, but it will help establish a sense of routine and process, especially if you are working towards a deadline.

By-Sonam Gupta

Thursday, 28 June 2018

5 Ways to communicate effectively in public

When we watch celebrities, politicians, or business leaders speak on television or in public, they seem so at ease that we may wonder:  are great speakers made, or are they just born that way? While it is true that some individuals are definitely born with this gift, the overwhelming majority of effective speakers have trained themselves to be so. Either they have received formal media training or they have delivered so many speeches that over time they’ve learned what works for them. So, what is the true secret to effective public speaking?

1. Nervousness Is Normal. Practice and Prepare!

All people feel some physiological reactions like pounding hearts and trembling hands. Do not associate these feelings with the sense that you will perform poorly or make a fool of yourself. Some nerves are good. The adrenaline rush that makes you sweat also makes you more alert and ready to give your best performance.The best way to overcome anxiety is to prepare, prepare, and prepare some more. Take the time to go over your notes several times. Once you have become comfortable with the material, practice a lot. Videotape yourself, or get a friend to critique your performance.

2. Stop trying to be a great “public” speaker.
People want to listen to someone who is interesting, relaxed, and comfortable.  In the routine conversations we have every day, we have no problem being ourselves.  Yet too often, when we stand up to give a speech, something changes. We focus on the “public” at the expense of the “speaking.”  To become an effective public speaker, you must do just the opposite: focus on the speaking and let go of the “public.”  Think of it as a conversation between you and the audience. If you can carry on a relaxed conversation with one or two people, you can give a great speech. Whether your audience consists of two people or two thousand and whether you’re talking about the latest medical breakthrough or what you did today at work, be yourself; talk directly to people and make a connection with them.

3. Stay in the moment. You know I love this one! When you devote your full attention to the person or people you are communicating with, you're more likely to have much better results. I know for a fact that's very, very true. Whenever I've gotten distracted and stopped paying attention to the person I'm communicating with, the communication as quickly gone south. If you want to communicate your thoughts effectively, you have to stay in the present moment and really be there when you're speaking and listening.

4. Make it personal.
Whatever the topic, audiences respond best when speakers personalize their communication. Take every opportunity to put a face on the facts of your presentation.  People like to hear about other people’s experiences—the triumphs, tragedies, and everyday humorous anecdotes that make up their lives.  Tell stories.  Whenever possible, insert a personal-interest element in your public speaking.  Not only will it make your listeners warm up to you, but it will also do wonders at putting you at ease. After all, on what subject is your expertise greater than on the subject of you?

5. Watch for Feedback and Adapt to It.

Keep the focus on the audience. Gauge their reactions, adjust your message, and stay flexible. Delivering a canned speech will guarantee that you lose the attention of or confuse even the most devoted listeners.

Wednesday, 27 June 2018

Role of Confidence and Attitude in Public Speaking

Confidence and attitude play an essential role in public speaking. One needs to be confident in front of his/her audience to create an everlasting impression. Remember, your audience would not take you seriously unless and until you believe in yourself. Nervousness only indicates either you are lying or not sure of what you intend to communicate.

Communication is the successful conveying or sharing of ideas and feelings. Self Confidence is a feeling of trust in one’s abilities, qualities, and judgment. Imagine someone asking for a raise. One person does so with a smile and straightforward gaze, while another says the same words with a frown and stares at her shoes or hangs her head.
Your body language and style not only affect whether you get what you want, but also the way you feel about yourself. Sometimes we interact in ways that diminish our own self-confidence.
Problems such as stage fear, nervousness disappear when you have confidence in yourself. There must be something in you and that is the reason why your superiors have asked you to address a large audience. Self confidence comes only when you know the agenda well and the purpose of the presentation is clear. Why do you think the people would believe you if you yourself are not sure of your content? Remember, convincing people is definitely not a cake walk. But yes, the situation becomes easier when you are confident enough to not only convince others but also make them listen to you with rapt attention and also act accordingly.

Public speaking is not everyone’s cup of tea. Not every individual is comfortable standing in front of a large audience, making eye contact with them and delivering his content. Positive attitude plays an important role. Some people have the habit of cribbing on everything. If your Boss walks up to you and asks you to address a group of say 50 employees, what would be your immediate reaction? Some people would definitely not like the idea and come up with several excuses to avoid the same. Where is the problem? Trust me, the problem is nowhere but in our attitude, the way we see things. Professionally it always helps to look at the brighter sides of things. Remember, cribbing leads to no solution.
It’s vital to your own sense of self-worth to interact in a way that makes you feel effective, rather than helpless. Interestingly, you don’t have to be confident to act confident. In the case of communication, actions often precede feelings. Act confident and you just might find that you’re feeling better about yourself, as well.

Tuesday, 26 June 2018

Scope of Event Management

If you’re thinking about a career in event management you’ll be looking at all the options. The events industry is more interested in your skills and your ability to do the job than how many qualifications you have. It is, however, really important to feel confident in your abilities and to have the knowledge you need to know what you are doing, which is why we recommend doing an accredited event management course.
“Event management is a powerful blend of creative and technical skills, essential for the creation and delivery of any live experience.” There is nothing quite like the buzz of delivering a live ‘show’.

Events and occasions are an integral part of human life. We simply cannot bypass them as they touch almost all aspects of our social existence. Birthday celebrations, social gatherings, engagements and weddings are events we celebrate at the personal level. Event management is a multifaceted activity. Major constituents of this profile include creativity, meticulous planning, relationship management, advertising and marketing and much more, all rolled into one seamlessly choreographed process.

Event management is catching up as a bright career option due to element of style, flamboyance, glamour and glitz associated with pertinent corporate and social events because of the increasing trend in marketing and retail sector.

Event management is all about keeping in order a focused and professional event for a certain target audience. It entails visualizing concepts, executing, organizing, budgeting and planning events.

Event managers organize events such as product launching, theme parties, birthday parties, wedding celebrations, exhibitions, workshops, corporate seminars, company conferences, musical concerts, road shows, celebrity promotions, film awards, fashion, celebrity shows etc. Event managers can work on a whole range of different events which is what makes being an event manager such an exciting, challenging and fun industry to work in.

A typical week might involve visiting a venue for an event, meeting with a client to discuss their plans, doing a food tasting session, meeting with the entertainment for the event, the list can go on!

Monday, 25 June 2018

How to start your career in media?

Being a journalist can be more exciting as well as challenging career option in today’s time. If you have just cleared your senior school exams and looking for a career option other than the traditional ones. Mass Communication may be the one for you. To start with, you have to find out the best media college around and start your undergraduate course in mass communication. However, the name of course may vary from Bachelor of Arts in Mass Communication/ Mass Media/Journalism but the curriculum is more or less same. It’s better to find one in New Delhi as most of the Major news channels have their head offices at Delhi NCR. 

Just Google top 10 media institutes in Delhi and you are ready to go. Take a round and look for the best infrastructure that includes practical labs like Radio Lab, News Room, Studio, Video Editing Lab, Computer Lab and the faculty with best experience on field. This deadly combination will surely provide you the best education of media so you can easily understand the working of media houses as soon as you reach to the final year of degree.

Even if you have graduated in s different domain but have now developed an interest in Mass Communication/Media/ Journalism, not to worry, you can join the Master’s degree program. There is no restriction of doing Undergraduate degree in Mass Communication/ Media/ Mass Media/ Journalism to get enrolled in Master’s program.

So, what are you waiting for?

Apply now.

Saturday, 23 June 2018

Press sub-editors

 Were you the favorite student of your language teacher whether Hindi or English? Do you think you know a language in terms of grammar and vocabulary better than your other fellow mates? Do you think you can turn copy into readable words, with correct grammar, spelling and style? If yes, then you could be an effective press sub-editor.

A sub-editor is the one who gives a final and perfect shape to a write-up for print. They are responsible for ensuring the correct grammar, spelling, house style and tone of the published work.
Subs make sure that the copy is factually correct and that it suits the target market. They also lay out the story on the page, write headings and captions, and may be involved with overall page design.
Like other journalism roles, sub-editing is demanding and requires constant attention to detail in a fast-paced working environment.

To be a good sub, you must be an all-rounder: you need to know media law, have a keen eye for detail and be able to put a story together with speed and style. The essential skills required to become a sub-editor are a degree in mass communication/mass media/journalism and strong command on any of the language.

Depending on the nature of employment and the extent to which production and layout work falls within the sub-editor's remit, your tasks will typically involve the following:

1.       editing copy, written by reporters or features writers, to remove spelling mistakes and grammatical errors
2.       rewriting material so that it flows or reads better and adheres to the house style of a particular publication
3.       ensuring that a story fits a particular word count by cutting or expanding material as necessary
4.       writing headlines that capture the essence of the story or are clever or amusing
5.       liaising with reporters, journalists and editors
6.       checking facts and stories to ensure they are accurate, adhere to copyright laws, are not libelous or go against the publication's policy
7.       working to a page plan to ensure that the right stories appear in the correct place on each page
8.       keeping up to date with sector issues, e.g. by reading related publications

So, now you know, the foundation of our career starts with our basic learning at school level.

Happy Leaning!!!

Friday, 22 June 2018


What they see is what they get.

Advertising simply means to enhance the visibility of your product among the audience. The quote, ‘What we see is what we get’, is absolutely correct for the world of advertising. Advertising is a means of communication with the users of a product or service. Advertisements are messages paid for by those who send them and are intended to inform or influence people who receive them, as defined by the Advertising Association of the UK.

It is an announcement in a newspaper, on television, on bill boards, on posters that tells people about a product or event.

Advertising is always present, though people may not be aware of it. In today's world, advertising uses every possible media to get its message through. It does this via television, print (newspapers, magazines, journals etc), radio, press, internet, direct selling, hoardings, mailers, contests, sponsorships, posters, clothes, events, colours, sounds, visuals and even people (endorsements).

The advertising industry is made of companies that advertise, agencies that create the advertisements, media that carries the ads, and a host of people like copy editors, visualizers, brand managers, researchers, creative heads and designers who take it the last mile to the customer or receiver. A company that needs to advertise itself and/or its products hires an advertising agency. The company briefs the agency on the brand, its imagery, the ideals and values behind it, the target segments and so on. The agencies convert the ideas and concepts to create the visuals, text, layouts and themes to communicate with the user. After approval from the client, the ads go on air, as per the bookings done by the agency's media buying unit.

There is a lot of competition out there, especially in cities that have a limited number of agencies. But, there are plenty of opportunities for those who want to get started in the field. This doesn't mean you're going to get that corner office with a view, the prestigious income and creative control of advertising campaigns with your first job.

There's a lot of legwork you're going to have to do. But if you're serious about your career in the industry, you can break in. You can start client-side and move over, which opens up a whole world of different companies for you to start at.

You can even work freelance before finding a permanent job.

Happy Learning !!!

Thursday, 21 June 2018

What does a Radio Jockey do?

Radio has managed to keep its charm even after the introduction of variety of TV programs and New Media. It didn’t let go its sparkle. A big chunk of people still prefer to listen Radio while driving or while in need of some soothing music in the mid hours of sleepless nights.

Radio is also considered as the medium of village. India, yet being a rural country still keeps a wide audience of Radio. But what keeps Radio alive is definitely the Radio Jockeys.  The job of a Radio Jockey includes music programming, scripting, presenting radio shows, radio advertisements and lending voice to audio magazines and documentaries. They have to create magic with their voice, with their words.

There are various celebrities Radio Jockeys who are already ruling the Radio industry and you can become the next one too! If you have that right voice and wittiness to engage the listeners then you can also become one of the popular RJs in your town.

There is no specific academic path to become an RJ but education is mandatory. First, you should opt for a diploma or a post graduation degree in mass communication/ media/journalism.  It would pull you into preference list of Radio Channels. Rest what matters most is passion and skills. Take a note for that:

1. Creative bent of mind, the most important trait you need to possess or develop in any of the media related job. Be so creative that it can re-create you.
2. Focused approach, you got to be focused on your work. You have to be very attentive towards your audience.
3. One needs to be adaptable in two senses, he should be able to host programs based on different themes and he should be flexible in terms of timing. The main thing about Radio is time slot, not everyone is listening Radio all the time, you have to pick up the best time you can get huge audience.
4. Sense of humor is a must because it is this characteristic that binds audience to you in this way too serious and hushy life.
5. General knowledge and awareness, you should be aware about what’s new going on around so you can talk instantly about anything if you have to.
6. Confidence and positive attitude not only for your job but towards your life as well. No one would have confidence in you unless you have it about yourself and positivity is something everyone is looking for.

Are you ready?

Wednesday, 20 June 2018

How to become a talk show host?

Do you like to chit chat and intrigue people about various things? Do you see yourself as a famous talk show host on some news channel like Arnab Goswami or Shweta Singh or a host of some reality show on Television like Simmi Garewal and Kapil Sharma? If yes, start taking notes now, because your talk show career starts now.

Where do you begin?

 1: Choose your trainer
Today a number of institutions provide education in journalism and mass communication: print, television and radio, however nowadays mass communication also includes digital channels like podcasting, video production, and much, much more.

Choose the one that is a recognized body under UGC and is well equipped for theoretical as well practical training.

The college you choose must have a studio too, which would be your opportunity to see how you like performing in front of a camera. Camera performance is much different than stage performance. Even people who do well in front of crowds can freeze up when the red light and reflective lens stares back at them.

2: Concentrate on Communication:
Improve your communication skills while you are learning at college. This is the best thing you can do with you. You should know what should be talked at what time. When you are the host, the show is yours and you should be the star of it.

You communication skills are the first thing that would make you star of the show.

3: Be a Hometown Hero
Let's be honest. A nationally syndicated talk show is not something you're going to fall into right out of college. You're going to need some real world experience before you get a national stage. So start locally.

The television business is broken up into a number of markets -- small, medium and large. And all those markets have a need for original programming. Get an entry level job in a small market -- where everyone is expected to do a number of jobs - and you might get a shot at being on camera. And if you have the passion, you might get lucky and pitch an idea for a local talk show that gets picked up by your station. Use that to build a resume and a reputation and carry that on to bigger markets.

4: Pile up Knowledge
The most important thing to do, however, is piling up knowledge that can help you move your career a bit lesser difficult.

Every successful talk show host knew a lot of topics and facts to not stop in mid of the show.

5: Hone Your Skill
It takes a ton of talent to host a show almost every day for the better part of a year. You have to know how to interview guests, especially difficult guests. You have to have the flexibility to talk about myriad subjects. And you have to guide your show's rhythm so that viewers keep coming back for more and bring other viewers with them. Find ways to flex your verbal and mental skills so you're ready when your time comes.

Finally, be persistent. Always look for an opportunity to demonstrate your skill, show off your homespun show, and pitch an idea to local television shows to get your career off the ground.

Sunday, 17 June 2018

Community Radio

Community radio usually is a short-range, not-for-profit radio station or channel that caters for the information needs of people living in a particular locality, in the languages and formats that are most adapted to the local context. Community radio stations can be mobilized for campaigns, for example by announcing campaign events, hosting talk shows with campaigners, or playing the campaign radio jingle and songs.

Community radio, rural radio, cooperative radio, participatory radio, free radio, alternative, popular, educational radio. If the radio stations, networks and production groups that make up the World Association of Community Radio Broadcasters refer to themselves by a variety of names, then their practices and profiles are even or varied. Some are musical, some militant and some mix music and militancy. They are located in isolated rural villages and in the heart of the largest cities in the world. Their signals may reach only a kilometer, cover a whole country or be carried via shortwave to other parts of the world. Some stations are owned by not-for-profit groups or by cooperatives whose members are the listeners themselves. 

Call it by any name community radio, rural radio, cooperative radio, or development radio, its proponents feel that radio holds the key that will unite India's linguistic and ethnic diversity and improve the economic disparity and the huge rural-urban divide. 

India has 245 commercial radio stations spread across 50-odd cities out of a total of 1,600 cities and towns in the country. Some might argue that radio is an ageing technology and shouldn't be revived, but it is dying even faster where it is needed the most: in rural hinterlands and communities.

More than 70% of Indian population lives in villages and a vast majority of them have little to no connectivity to Internet, electricity or telephone lines making radio the only feasible medium for mass communication. 

However, 13 years after India first opened itself to the idea of having community-run radio stations, only 179 such stations are currently functional in the country, far short of the 4,000 stations the government in 2007 promised would be set up "in a few years".

Friday, 15 June 2018

Importance of Research in Mass Media

Research comprises “creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.” 
Research is actually an act of studying something carefully and extensively in order to attain deep knowledge in the same. For being successful, research should be systematic, arranged, summarized and recorded properly. Research is not only a process that is limited to the field of science. It can, as well, cater to people and scholars from artistic, historic or any other field where an individual is willing to do extensive study to get relevant information. 
Research provides you with all necessary information in field of your work, study or operation before you begin working on it. For example, most companies do research before beginning a project in order to get a basic idea about the things they will need to do for the project.
If you use social media such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, go online or watch television you are involved in mass media. And if you've ever said yes to an internet prompt that asks if it is okay to collect your browsing history so they can better adapt the ads to suit your needs, then you are actively participating in mass media research. Simply, mass media research is the study of information related to any form of mass communication. Mass media includes television, internet, and social media. Newspapers and magazines are also considered mass media if they have a wide enough reach.

 Businesses study mass media to see which form of mass media produces the greater result for its advertisements. In contrast, from a public health standpoint, studies have been performed to see what kind of effect watching TV violence has on children. 
Because Mass Media is everywhere, likewise research is also everywhere. Mass Media Research impacts many people’s lives.

Media Research

Media research is the study of the social, psychological and physical aspects and effects of the different mass media. For example, how much time do people spend with a particular medium? Whether it has the effect of bringing about changes in the perspectives of people? Does the use of medium have any harmful effects? Whether these effects are because of technology or the programme contents? What the media users want and expect to hear or read or see and experience?

In this connection it is also researched whether a medium can provide information and entertainment to more and different types of people. In what way, new technology can be used to improve or enhance the sight or sound of the medium? How is it possible to change the content or programming to make it more valuable effective and entertaining?

While conducting Media research, we need to understand:
The nature of medium being used
The working of the medium
Technologies involved in it
Difference and similarities between it and other media vehicles
Functions and services provided by it
Cost associated and access to new medium
Effectiveness and how it can be improved

As decision process depends on data, thus media research has grown to be utilized for long range planning. Research is in growth phase due to competitions between different media.

Communication, by definition, is a two-way process. It is a co-operative and a joint effort. It is a mutual experience. It is an exchange between two parties- a sender and receiver. For the communication experience to become complete, what we need is a response to the message of the communicator. That response, when it reaches back the sender, is called feedback.

In interpersonal Communication, the sender and receiver interact naturally, directly and immediately. They constantly interchange roles- as sender and receiver. But in mass communication, the situation is different. The response of the audience becomes meaningful only if it reaches the sender. The different means of feedback include writing a letter, making a phone-call or sending an e-mail or SMS, canceling a subscription, etc. Turning of the TV set is a reaction. But it does not reach the sender. In view of the distance, time and space between the communicator and the audience, mass communication feedback is indirect, delayed, often cumulative and rarely representative. Thus media organizations try to collect feedback on their own. But the process of collecting feedback is immensely time consuming, and involves enormous expenses.

The audiences of the mass media are usually very large. Any feedback to be worthwhile has to come from a representative sample of the total population. It must be statistically represent the feelings and actions of the total audience.

Wednesday, 13 June 2018


The art of emotions…

As per the very famous theory of Professor Robert Plutchik, there are basic 8 emotions that a human feels in his whole life. The list of these 8 emotions is as follows:

1.     Fear
2.     Anger
3.     Sadness
4.     Joy
5.     Disgust
6.     Surprise
7.     Trust
8.     Anticipation or Expectation

Rest all feelings are either higher or lower forms of these basic emotions.  We all very well understand the meaning of these emotions as well. However, the reason why we are reading them here is because they are the major constituent of theatre.

Theatre can be simply described as a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performances of actor/actresses to represent a real or imagined event before a live audience usually on a stage. Performers may use a combination of gestures, music, speeches, poetry, dance and light to enhance their performances. Special costumes, props and sometimes masks are also used by artists to make the theatre livelier.

Theatre is one of the oldest forms of art and has it origin from Greece during 700 BC. The development has been majorly recorded in the city state Athens where it was performed as a part of their festivals called Dionysia which honored Dionysus- the God of grape harvest, wine making and fertility.
Later on the art was also being used at many other occasions as well with several different themes of religious rituals, political laws, athletes, weddings and funerals.

Since then theatre had emerged a lot. Today, we have a wide collection of literature which are being translated and represented in the form of theatre. Also, a lot of new talents are creating fresh story boards for theatre to represent modern scenarios and issues. Beauty of the theatre is it helps people to memorise the events. It gives people a live experience of those events where they were not present physically at the time of event happening.

" Hit the link to watch IAAN Students performing theatre"

You can become a theatre artist if you know the right use of emotions and expressions. If you can just show them the way words tell you. Learning theatre is itself an art. You won’t be asked directly to go on the stage and perform. It starts from the very basic things. The trainer would ask you to do some exercise repeatedly to improve the movement of your muscles and to improve the quality of your voice as the right movement of muscle gives you the right expression and the voice demands modulations as per the need of emotion. However this may be time taking but if you want to become a theatre artist, be very patient, not everything comes fast. Best things take time to happen.

Happy Learning!!!